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  • 首页 >轮毂预警平台 > 预警信息 > 新闻内容

    《反垄断指南》出台前夜 汽车业反垄断将开新罚单
    日期:2016/12/6 11:18:42 来源:华夏时报

      沉寂了一年多的汽车业反垄断在年底又掀波澜。
      继奔驰、奥迪、克莱斯勒、东风日产等汽车厂商相继收到国家发改委开出的反垄断罚单后,“今年年底之前会再对一个企业作出处罚。”发改委价格监督检查与反垄断局副局长卢延纯,于近期举行的中国进口车高层论坛上向《华夏时报》记者透露:“现在正在走处罚程序。”
      不仅如此,据卢延纯介绍,已于今年3月向社会公开征求意见的《关于汽车业的反垄断指南》,后期又进行了修改。“目前起草工作已经基本完成,后续的上报工作正在进行中,并将尽快进入实施阶段。”
      一场席卷汽车整车、零配件、经销商乃至二手车行业的反垄断风波再度掀起,而这一次次反垄断调查的初衷,是希望换来一个竞争更加充分、经营更加合规、市场更加开放的良好环境。
      让子弹再飞一会
      尽管卢延纯并未透露年底前即将开出的罚单具体指向谁家,不过却明确表示:“我们重点关注汽车经销和售后市场的纵向垄断问题。”
      在这一最新罚单出炉之前,发改委已经对多家汽车企业进行了相应处罚。最近的一次反垄断处罚是去年9月向东风日产开出的罚单。根据彼时广东省发改委对东风日产汽车垄断案作出的行政处罚,东风日产汽车销售公司被罚款1.233亿元,其广州地区17家经销商被罚款1912万元,两方合计处罚1.4242亿元。
      东风日产之后,反垄断风波似乎逐渐平息。“有人说反垄断搞一下一阵风,处罚两家就没事了。我可以负责任肯定地讲不是这样。”卢延纯直言,“我已经和企业讲过,如果之前的企业出现这样的问题被处罚,继续出现这样的问题若不被处罚,执法的公平性何在。”
      在东风日产之前,由于违反垄断法被处罚的整车企业还包括奥迪、克莱斯勒以及奔驰。其中,奔驰公司被江苏省物价局认定价格垄断,罚款3.5亿元,并对部分经销商罚款786.9万元。而3.57亿元的金额,也成为中国汽车反垄断处罚史上单品牌最高罚单。此外,奥迪被罚2.4858亿元,克莱斯勒被罚3168.20万元。
      除了整车企业,中国反垄断部门去年还对日本12家零部件及轴承企业开出12.35亿元的罚单。数据显示,截至目前,我国汽车业反垄断已经开出20多亿的罚单。卢延纯表示,“罚款并非执法目的,反垄断局执法所追求的目标是让市场竞争更加充分,令消费者利益得到更好保证,让经营行为更加合规,促进市场的进一步开放。”
      “我们要促进反垄断的常态化,存在问题的企业不要有任何侥幸。”显然,汽车行业的反垄断有助于建立公平的市场竞争环境。在卢延纯看来,汽车行业反垄断涉及到消费者的利益,保证汽车从生产、销售、售后到二手车流通、汽车金融,对整个汽车产业链条的良性运转都有重要意义。
      《指南》将落地
      而作为汽车业反垄断的利器,《汽车反垄断指南》也将正式出台。
      今年3月23日,发改委公布了《关于汽车业的反垄断指南》(征求意见稿),向社会公开征求意见。当时的征求意见稿不仅阐明了汽车生命周期中涉及价格、区域销售、售后服务、二手车等领域的横向和纵向垄断概念,并以实务举例,明晰了部分垄断和可被豁免的情形,划定了红线。
      “主要是在总结过去执法经验的基础上,借鉴国外反垄断的一些经验,大量征求了汽车产业上下中游消费者代表、专家学者的意见,基本思路就是开门起草。”卢延纯说,“在征求意见稿公布后,根据收集的意见,我们又对《指南》进行了修改。目前,《指南》起草工作已经基本完成。后续的上报工作正在进行中。”
      在卢延纯看来,汽车行业之所以作为反垄断重点,不仅因为汽车产业是国民经济的重要支柱,与消费者的利益密切相关,更为重要的是目前汽车市场的竞争不尽如人意。
      数据显示,2015年我国汽车销售额达到2.2万亿元,占社会商品零售额的13%。与此同时,2015年我国汽车保有量已经超过了1.72亿辆,仅次于美国居于世界第二。但是,“目前汽车销售中,纵向价格限制问题依然严重,特别是汽车零整比高,配件销售和售后服务价格高,隐性消费多。”卢延纯认为,造成这些现象的原因是多方面的,其中一个重要的原因是当前售后市场相对封闭和锁定价格高导致汽车供应商对经销商从采购设备到终端价格层层把控。这也是反垄断的重点所在。“汽车业的公平竞争对经济增长、就业、科技创新、环境保护和社会发展具有重要意义。”卢延纯说。
      二手车亦是重点
      值得注意的是,除了整车厂商及汽车零配件厂商,卢延纯特意强调了二手车流通环节的垄断问题。“尤其在二手车市场,二手车限迁的问题值得关注。”
      今年3月,二手车限迁问题不仅写进了发改委的《关于汽车业的反垄断指南》,国务院办公厅更是发布《关于促进二手车便利交易的若干意见》(以下简称“国八条”),并要求已经实施限制二手车迁入政策的地方在2016年5月底前予以取消。困扰二手车行业发展的限迁问题似乎已在政策层面得到化解。
      不过,目前二手车的限迁问题在现实执行层面可谓喜忧参半。
       “截至目前,已有14个省区市共计183个城市执行了‘国八条’。其中,能够百分之百执行‘国八条’精神的有12个省区,159个城市。”中国汽车流通协会秘书长肖政三向本报记者表示,仍然有一些省市拉了后腿。“目前仍有两个省未执行解禁‘限迁’政策,规定迁入其省内的二手车须达到‘国四’排放标准以上。”
      在肖政三看来,限迁政策同样是制约二手车交易的主要因素。相关数据显示,今年10月,全国二手车市场交易量为88.51万辆,交易量环比下降0.89%,月度同比增长22.89%。交易额509.55 亿元,环比下降 10.59%。截至10月,二手车累计交易量为827.70万辆,累计同比增长9.57%。虽然处于增长态势,但仍有较大发展空间。
      不过,随着《关于汽车业的反垄断指南》的即将发布,困扰二手车流通领域的限迁问题将得到进一步破冰。“如果地方政府出台相关规章制度限制二手车流转,那么将会触犯《指南》中行政垄断。这意味着,对于二手车地方限迁问题将有法可依。”中国汽车流通协会副秘书长沈荣说。
      随着汽车行业反垄断的常态化,无论是新车还是二手车交易市场,竞争环境都将得到进一步的净化。这对于我国汽车产业的良性发展,无疑大有裨益。

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