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    德国新规倒逼中企加快创新
    日期:2017/7/28 16:31:53 来源:国际商报

      近年来,随着中企海外并购步伐加快,遭受的非议和审查也在增多。据外媒报道,德国政府近日通过一项新法规,规定政府有权阻止危及关键基础设施安全的外资收购活动,以防止重要技术外流。此举被认为意在阻止中国企业在德并购。

      专家表示,高端制造业已成为中国对外直接投资终止案例的重灾区,“威胁国家安全”则是主要理由。投资合作本着互利共赢的原则,德国收紧外资并购新规是出于保护自身的目的,本身无可厚非。不过仅靠去海外进行技术并购并非长久之计,未来还是要加快企业自主创新的步伐。

      对中企影响不可避免

      德国批准拟对欧盟外的企业收购战略性企业强化审查的新规,政府将有权阻止可能导致关键技术流失的收购。德国还将与法国、意大利一道推动欧盟法律作出类似调整。据外媒报道,新规是对德国和欧洲高技术企业被中国收购并丧失知识产权引发担忧的回应。

      有中方分析指出,自2014年起,中国已连续第三年成为在德国投资项目数量最多的国家,且投资集中于汽车工业、机械制造业及电子和半导体产业等高科技产业。若德国加强对外资的安全审查,中国企业将很难不受影响。“任何国家的对外开放都不等于敞开大门。”在新华社世界问题研究中心研究员李长久看来,德国上述措施是出于保护自身的目的,本身无可厚非。

      中国社科院财贸研究所国际贸易投资室主任冯雷在接受国际商报记者采访时也强调:“每个国家都有权自设标准对投资行为进行审核。不排除有企业绕开国家外资安全审查政策进行并购的行为,一旦涉及关键技术转让,便将威胁国家安全利益。”

      不过,外交部新闻发言人耿爽此前在回应该问题时表示,中国同包括德国在内的其他国家开展经贸合作的本质是互利共赢。希望德方、欧方在出台有关措施时应注意避免受保护主义思潮的干扰,避免向外界释放混乱、消极的信号。

      加快自主创新才是长久之计

      《中国对外直接投资与国家风险报告(2017)》指出,高端制造业已成为中国对外直接投资终止案例的重灾区,绝大部分终止原因来自东道国监管部门,“威胁国家安全”则是主要理由。

      在李长久看来,目前国内企业面临较大的转型升级压力,若自身创新能力不足,只能选择到海外进行技术并购。但从德国、美国近年来的表现来看,加强安全审查已经成为趋势,这也意味着中企再走技术并购的道路会面临更多阻碍。

      此外,从企业自身来讲,通过并购来获取技术红利的方式并不持久。根据技术转移的弗农模型理论,随着新技术在国与国之间流动,其带来的利润也在递减,在发展中国家争取越来越薄的技术溢出效应时,原始创新国早已开始了另一项技术的创新,后发国家则落入技术引进的陷阱。

      对此,李长久认为,个别国家加强对中国境外投资的限制,不仅有利于增强“出海”企业的风险意识,避免在海外市场盲目扩张,更重要的是,或许还将倒逼企业加快自主创新,这才是推动经济发展的根本动力。“中国可借鉴日本和韩国的做法,逐步降低企业对技术引进的依赖,充分发挥政府的主导作用,不断优化鼓励创新的大环境。”李长久说。

      近年来,中国也在持续推进大众创业、万众创新深入发展。按照《“十三五”国家科技创新规划》提出的目标,到2020年,中国全社会研发投入要占GDP的2.5%,国家综合创新能力进入世界前15位,成为全球公认的创新型国家。届时,中国企业的海外投资之路自然也将更加宽广和顺畅。


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