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    方法 | 外贸收款细节——银行手续费到底怎么算?
    日期:2017/8/2 15:41:00 来源:进出口经理人

    外贸业务在收汇时经常会遇到实际收汇金额少于客户汇款金额的情况,不同的地域,差额大小不同,少则10美金,多的甚至六七十美金。如果是样品单或者货值比较低,那真是相当不划算啊。

    要想避免这方面的损失,要么在PI里注明:


    “Bank handling charge for order less than USD XXXX”


    要么跟客人说:


    “All bank charges occurred are to be borne by the Buyer. The total amount is the NET amount to be received by the Seller.”


    但也要考虑到客人是不是会搞不清楚,或者觉得你怎么这也charge那也charge,影响了对你的印象,所以不如干脆估个价格算在运费里。

    另一方面,有些提前说好明算账的客人也会说自己已经支付了银行手续费,可是你怎么知道他付了没有、是不是全部都支付了呢?


    首先,可以请客户发来汇款的电报底单,或者收汇后你跟银行要来收汇电报底单。拿到电报底单,看71A、71F和71G


    71A栏有三种显示内容,OUR、SHA和BEN。


    如果是OUR,就是客户承担了所有银行手续费,收到的金额往往和客户汇款金额是一致的。


    如果是SHA,交易中发报行方面收费由汇款人承担,收款人则承担收报行的费用。那么你收到的金额和客户汇款的金额可能有10-15美金的差异。


    如果是BEN,交易中的双方的收费均由收款人承担,说明客户没有支付银行手续费。这样你实际收到的金额和客户汇款金额相差就比较大,会有20-60美金的差异。


    71F栏的数值,就是发报行的费用数额,往往实际收汇金额和客户汇款金额的差额,就是71F的数值。


    71G栏的数值,表示收报行的费用。收报行一般就是你的开户行,大多情况下,国内的收汇银行是不收费用的,而且71G一旦出现,则不能空白或显示数值为零,所以收报行没有费用的时候,71G干脆就不在汇款报文里显示。


    以上通过报文分析,你就能够很清楚客户到底支付银行手续费没有。

    银行之间汇款结算最快也最经济的方式就是汇款银行在收款行开有账户,这样没有其他银行介入也就没有其他银行的费用,汇款行发报给收款行授权收款行从其账户里扣款即可。如果没有这种账户关系,汇款行就只能发报给它在货币清算中心(比如美元清算中心在纽约,其他货币以此类推)的账户行授权其从自己账户中扣款后付款给收款行开在该货币清算中心的账户中。所以会产生中间行费用。


    这时SHA费用其实只是指客户负责他自己国内的费用,而这些中转行收取的费用是属于国外的费用,可以说连客户也不清楚的,于是扣费就只能在这笔银行款里面扣了,中转的银行越多,扣费也越多。

    汇款手续费到底应该谁来承担呢?


    EXW、FOB、CNF这些基本的价格条款下,卖方是不承担EXW、FOB、CNF之外的费用的,如果没有专门提前约定银行手续费由卖方承担,那么银行手续费由买方承担才是正确的。


    实际业务中,很多客户不打招呼就把银行手续费转嫁给了卖方,卖方往往怕得罪客户,不想“以小失大”,默认了客户的做法。但还是有比较诚实的客户,汇款时足额支付银行费用,使你收到的金额等于他汇款的金额。对于这种细节上都很诚实的客户,一定要倍加珍惜。


    以下搜集了一些各国T/T付款的银行手续费案例,大家可以作为报价时的参考依据。(一般报30美金是比较合理的)


    @wiscoalex:账号是汇丰香港的。英国打过来的款,不管多少,好像都是25美金的费用。意大利过来的款,都是走的同一家,但是有收25美金的,也有收15美金的。巴西的款,好像非常高啊!50或者52美金。


    @lxlshirley1230:我这边意大利的客户1700美金扣50。


    @Shenzhen Quanju西班牙客户打款710美金过来,扣了28美金的手续费。


    @小巴巴89澳大利亚的的客户,8000美金就扣了80美金,我们这边银行扣取的。客户那边自己已经付了手续费,所以客户是不会承担的。


    @美容帅帅男澳大利亚到香港T/T银行转账,客户付款:636USD货款+18USD当地银行手续费=654USD,到账货款:611USD,经过美国中转行,手续费总额:43USD。澳大利亚T/T 手续费:43USD。


    @Cindyg:我做几年下来,一般是看地区的去收手续费,也看客户货值,如果货值很高,那就没必要和客户计较这点手续费了。货值没有很高的前提下,到澳大利亚的,T/T手续费一般是18USD左右每笔,有时是34USD左右每笔,34USD比较常见;到美国的,一般是8-18USD每笔;到欧洲的,一般是30多USD每笔;其他国家或地区的,做得比较少,为了保证自己不亏或不亏太多的前提下,就直接按每笔30USD收就行了。


    @我不是Nancy:香港汇丰收款,马来西亚较高,100-1000多美金到账都要扣十几二十美金左右;韩国较低,几千几万美金都是扣费15美金以内;土耳其扣费也高,每次都是三十几四十几美金。


    @fshhardware塞浦路斯汇中行,169usd的货款,只有126.75usd到账。手续费42.25usd。


    @中收ecrcn:130美金,从阿根廷汇款过来,扣了28美金手续费,当时没有考虑,结果就亏了。


    @kingsman2015秘鲁的手续费我们要加100刀。


    @Helen5452巴西客户3900美金分两次支付,总计扣费97美金。查了中国银行的报文,71A显示“BEN”,手续费全部由收款方承担。


    @玲子乌拉圭T/T付款到香港账户,手续费:74USD。


    @musicbomb:我有的中东那边客户一次扣67美金。


    @winbest015:渣打银行啊,正常的是扣7$,结果一个以色列客户付了两笔,金额差距比较大的,但是手续费都是56$/笔,两笔就是112$, 这手续费啊,真心太高了。我给客户讲了下实际到账情况,客户说为了让我们早点发货,他给走了快速通道,所以收费比较高。


    @BladeChen:我客户是巴基斯坦的,一个小单子总共就是1250USD,客户还分50%T/T,第一次付了625USD,通过美国NewYork中转,我们真正收到的只有580USD,一下子就扣了45美元。余款也是只收到了580USD,一个小小订单一下就扣去90USD。


    @心直口快巴基斯坦客户通过中东阿联酋汇款过来的更吐血,每次都是少65-70美金的,客户若无其事,还经常分次汇款,汇3次够他一次来中国的花费了,没办法解决!只能单价稍微提高。


    最后建议:小金额收款使用PayPal、西联、速汇金比较划算。


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